Photonion

PHOTO-TOF-MS

CUSTOMIZED GAS ANALYZER

Fast on-site analysis of compounds by soft ionization (VUV) mass spectrometry

TG-PIMS

THERMOGRAVIMETRY - PHOTOIONIZATION
MASS SPECTROMETRY

Decomposition of polymers
Characterization of crude oil
Characterization of tobacco and coffee

SMOKE TOF-MS

SMOKE ANALYZER

On-line analysis of toxic gases in cigarette smoke

PHOTONEX

POWERFUL EXCIMER LASER IONISATION SOURCE

Gas and particle analysis with the focus on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), inorganic-compounds and PAH

PHOTONEX

Gas  analysis with the focus on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)

  • coffee roasting
  • industrial combustion
  • process control

Particle analysis with the focus on inorganic- and PAH- compounds

  • ship exhaust
  • wood stove exhaust
  • car exhaust

Wavelength (nm): 193 (ArF) / 248nm (KrF)
Max. Repetition Rate: 200Hz up to kHz
Stabilized Pulse Energy: 6* mJ
Stabilized Pulse Power: 1.2* W
Energy Stability (sigma)
: 2*%
Beam Dimensions (FWHM, V x H mm): 6 x 3*
Beam Divergence (FWHM, V x H mrad): 2 x 1*
Pulse Duration (FWHM): 5 to10* ns

Weight: app. 75 kg
Cooling: air/water**
Electrical: 230 V, 50/60 Hz, 2000 W 
Dimensions (LxWxH): 594x315x496 mm***

PHOTO-TOF-MS

  • Pyrolysis of wood
  • Coffee roasting
  • Pyrolysis of tobacco
  • Analysis of exhaust gases
    (engine, industrial combustion)
  • Breath analysis
  • Hyphenation to other instruments
    (gas chromatography, thermal desorption, thermal analysis, smoking machine)

Gaseous samples are addressed continuously by the Photo-TOF-MS mass spectrometry system at a flow rate of ~2mL/s. Depending on the ionization technique various relevant species can be ionized by SPI, REMPI or EI. After the ionization, the formed ions are accelerated into the reflectron time-of-flight mass analyzer where they are separated due to their different mass to charge ratios. A typical TOF mass spectrum can be generated in some milliseconds. Hence, this fast on-line measurement system is a selective and sensitive analytical method to investigate complex gas mixtures such as from combustion processes.

VUV-photo ionization (SPI):
UNIVERSAL SOFT IONIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
VUV lamp (e.g. electron-beam pumped argon excimer light source) with 9.8eV (126nm) or Nd:YAG laser with third harmonic generation VUV-cell with 10.5eV (118nm). detection limits for most organics in ppb region

Laser-photo ionization (REMPI):
SUPERIOR SELECTIVITY AND SENSITIVITY FOR AROMATICS*
Fixed frequency (266 or 248nm) or tunable lasers (OPO) in wavelengths range 206nm-300nm
detection limits for most aromatics in low ppb or ppt region * (optional)

Electron ionization (EI)
STANDARD FRAGMENTING IONIZATION TECHNIQUE *
70eV for mass spectra with standard fragmentation (NIST) or tunable from 5eV to 90eV (special setup)
detection limits in ppm – ppb range * (optional)

Multiplexing ionization mode (MIM) 
ACHIEVING SPI, REMPI AND EI RESULTS SIMULTANEOUSLY *
The ionization methods (REMPI/EI/SPI) can be operated quasi-simultaneously via multiplexed acquisition methods * (optional)

Special inlet system:

  • unique flexible heated transferline and customized sample solutions
  • on-line gas phase measurements hyphenation to thermal analysis,
  • gas chromatography, pyrolysis, etc.

TOF-mass analyzer:

  • Direct reflection time of flight mass spectrometer (flight path 0,9m)
  • Mass range: 10 – 2000 Th (m/z) (standard configuration)
  • Mass resolution: m/Δm = 2000
  • Linear dynamic range: 104
  • Mass accuracy: 100ppm
  • Maximal primary data acquisition rate: 100kHz

Rack configuration (specification dependent):

  • 2×19”-module rack, Dimensions (WxDxH): 1.2 x 0.8 x 1.3m
  • Power supply 100-230V, 50/60Hz

Data acquisition and visualization software:

  • The data is displayed in real time. The actual measured
    mass spectra and the variation of selected ions is displayed.
    Data can be exported (formats e.g.: TXT, CSV).

TG-PIMS

  • Thermal analysis and characterization
    of evolving gases by 
    soft ionization mass spectrometry

mass range: 10-600 Th
mass resolving power: 900 Th/Th FWHM *
mass accuracy: 100 mTh
extraction rate: up to 80 kHz
spectra rate: 10 Hz
ionization: EI, SPI, EI/SPI
Quad Filter: low cut-off
dynamic range: 10^6
gas flow into ion source: 1 std ml/min = 1 sccm
matrix gas: He, N2, Ar also air or O2
ion rate: 1000 ions/extraction
different VUV sources: for different energies

DECOMPOSITION OF POLYMERES
Polystyrene (PS): The SPI mass spectrum shows that in addition to the dominating 

styrene monomer peak at 104 m/z, also the styrene dimer (208 m/z) and styrene trimer (312 m/z) are formed. Due to the resonance stabilization of the styrene monomer the alkane backbone of the PS polymer readily is breaking after every second chain carbon, forming predominately styrene (C2-phenyl unit). However, the occurrence of toluene (C1-phenyl unit), phenyl propene (C3-phenyl unit) and phenyl butadiene (C4-phenyl unit) shows that other chain braking positions are possible, although less probable.

Acronitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS): The most dominant species in the evolved gas phase SPI mass spectrum is styrene (104 m/z) surrounded by the C1 and C3-benzene products from the polymer chain degradation (toluene and propenyl benzene). At 157 m/z the condensation product of acrylonitrile and styrene is visible and at 208 m/z the styrene dimer can be seen in the SPI mass spectrum.

CHARACTERIZATION OF CRUDE OIL

Crude oils are often characterized according to their physical properties such as density, viscosity, color, and odor. Furthermore, they may be distinguished by determining their chemical composition on a molecular level, which is challenging due to the enormous number of components present in the oils. In the displayed mass spectra alkanes (linear and branched), cycloalkanes and substituted benzenes occur in long homologous series and are assigned by the different colored dots red, green and blue, respectively. The SPI mass spectra from thermal analysis of different crude oils clearly show the advantage of soft photo ionization for the characterization of the evolving gases. Since fragmentation does not occur, each hydrocarbon may be identified according to its molecular peak. Different crude oils can be easily identified and characterized based on their distinct molecular patterns of the released compounds.

The thermogravimetry SPI-MS setup consists of a thermobalance which is coupled to an oaTOF mass spectrometer. The coupling is carried out via a heated capillary, which transfers the gas molecules evolving in the thermobalance into the ion source. There, the molecules are ionized either by VUV photons or by 70eV-electrons in case of conventional EI.

SMOKE PHOTO-TOF-MS

  • Characterization of cigarette smoke

Smoke from the cigarette filter holder is sampled continuously with the Photo-TOFMS mass spectrometry sys-tem at a flow rate of ~2mL/s. Various relevant species in the cigarette mainstream smoke are ionized by a special VUV-light source. After this unique soft photo ionization the for-med ions are accelerated into the time-of-flight mass ana-lyzer where they are separated due to their different mass to charge ratios. A typical mass spectrum of tobacco can be generated in ~10µs. A puff-resolved, on-line recording of the concentrations of several compounds thus is possi-ble. Parameters for ISO as well as intense (Massachusetts, Canada) smoking conditions can be applied. Furthermore, „human smoking“ profiles can be replicated by the smoking machine.

Smoking Machine:
CONFIGURATION:

  • 19“-module rack
  • Two syringes
  • Syringe controller
  • Microprocessor
  • controller Stepper motor
  • controller

LENGHTS OF CIGARETTE SAMPLES: 60-120mm
DIAMETER OF CIGARETTE SAMPLES: 4.5 to 9 mm
TOTAL DIMENSIONS (WXDXH): 1130x800x1250 mm
POWER SUPPLY: 100-230V, 50/60Hz
PUFF VOLUME: 5-100 mL in 1s, 5-150mL in 2s
PUFF DURATION: 1 – 9.9 sec.
PUFF SHAPE: Programmable (ISO, Intense, human smoking profile replication)
INTERFACE: 1xRS232

Photo-TOF Smoke Analyzer:
SPECIAL INLET SYSTEM:

  • Deactivated transfer line
  • Whole smoke and gas phase measurements
  • Special heated MS inlet needle
  • Heated up to 250°C (Transfer line, Interface and Inlet)

VUV-PHOTO IONIZATION LIGHT SOURCE: 

  • High energy 10.78 eV

TOF-MASS ANALYZER:

  • Mass range: 1 – 600 Th (m/z)
  • Mass resolution: m/Δm = 700
  • Dynamic range: 106
    Mass accuracy: 100 ppm
  • Detection limit (Benzene): 100 ppb
  • Maximal primary data acquisition rate: 100kHz
  • Acquisition hardware:
    On-board mass spectra accumulation
  • Soft SPI ionization mode (standard) and hard electron ionization mode (EI, 70 eV)
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